The use of amniotic tissue in orthopedic surgery has increased in recent years. While more studies are needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential and define the appropriate applications of these tissues, basic science and clinical studies are available that indicate promising results. This review will highlight these studies as they relate to the musculoskeletal system.
Amniotic membrane-derived tissues are safe and non-tumorigenic, producing an abundance of growth factors that have shown promise as tissue scaffolds and as aids in the regeneration of human bone and soft tissues. Amnion applications in orthopedic surgery may be numerous, but development is ongoing. Given the vast array of in vitro and in vivo animal data supporting the benefits of amnion in tissue regeneration, orthopedic surgeons and researchers should place emphasis on conducting clinical studies to validate the safety and efficacy of amniotic cells in the treatment of orthopedic conditions.
Nathanael Heckmann MD; Richard Auran BS; Raffy Mirzayan MD